Buy our cars:

Explore more than 60 years of research

The E.V.A. Initiative

We have studied more than 43,000 cars in real-life accidents with 72,000 occupants since the 1950s.

This collection of documents is the sample of the result of all our research and safety development, some to which access has been limited, up until now.

Throughout the years, it has contributed to many innovative systems such as WHIPS (Whiplash Injury Protection System), SIPS (Side Impact Protection System), and numerous child safety products.

We are now sharing this research by letting everyone download more than 40 years of research. We hope this will lead to safer cars for everyone - regardless of gender and size. Because at Volvo Cars, we will always put people first.

Åsberg, A, A Statistical Traffic Accident Analysis, The 4th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESV) Proceedings, Kyoto Japan, 1973

Topic: Methodology & real world data , Whiplash rear impact

Carlsson G, Nilsson S, Nilsson-Ehle A, Norin H, Ysander L, Örtengren R, Neck Injuries in Rear End Car Collisions; Biomechanical Considerations to Improve Head Restraints, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1985

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Olsson I, Bunketorp O, Carlsson G, Gustafsson C, Planath I, Norin H Ysander L, An In-depth Study of Neck Injuries in Rear End Collisions, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Bron, France, 1990

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Jakobsson L, Norin H, Jernström C, Svensson S-E, Johnsén P, Isaksson-Hellman I, Svensson M Y, Analysis of Different Head and Neck Responses in Rear-End Car Collisions using a New Humanlike Mathematical Model, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Lyon, France, 1994

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Davidsson J, Linder A, Svensson M Y, Flogård A, Håland Y, Jakobsson L, Lövsund P, Wiklund K, BioRID - A New Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Linder A, Jernström C, Svensson MY, Lövsund P, A mathematical model of an improved neck for a rear-end impact dummy, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 1998

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Lundell B, Jakobsson L, Alfredsson B, Lindström M, Simonsson L, The WHIPS Seat - A Car Seat for Improved Protection Against Neck Injuries in Rear End Impacts, Paper no. 98-S7-O-08, The 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Proceedings, Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 1998

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Jakobsson L, Norin H, Suggestions for Evaluation Criteria of Neck Injury Protection in Rear End Car Impacts, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Sitges, Spain, 1999

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Jakobsson, L., Lundell, B., Norin, H., Isaksson-Hellman, I. WHIPS-Volvo’s Whiplash Protection Study, Compendium of papers presented at the Traffic and Auto Engineering Stream of the World Congress on Whiplash-Associated Disorder, Feb 7-11, Vancouver BC, Canada, 1999

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Jakobsson L, Norin H, AIS1 Neck Injury Reducing Effect of WHIPS (Whiplash Protection System), Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Graz, Austria, 2004

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Bunketorp O, Jakobsson L, Norin H, Comparison of frontal and rear-end impacts for car occupants with whiplash-associated disorders: symptoms and clinical finding, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Graz, Austria, 2004

Topic: Whiplash rear impact, Whiplash frontal impact

Bunketorp O, Gustafsson Y, Wenneberg B, Jakobsson L, Norin H, Symptoms and signs indicating temporomandibular disorders after cervical acceleration-deceleration trauma in car impacts, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 2005

Topic: Whiplash rear impact, Whiplash frontal impact

Jakobsson, L, The development and real world performance of WHIPS, Conference on neck injuries in road traffic and prevention strategies, Munich, Germany, 2007

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

Distner M, Bengtsson M, Broberg T, Jakobsson L, City Safety – A system addressing rear-end collisions at low speeds, Paper No. 09-0371, The 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Conference (ESV), Stuttgart, Germany, 2009

Topic: Whiplash rear impact, Whiplash frontal impact

Schick S, Kullgren A, Tomasch E, Jakobsson L, Linder A, Gales N, Hell W, Basics for developing a female occupant model for investigating Cervical Spine Distortion injury (CSD), The 4th International Conference on ESAR, Expert Symposium on Accident Research, Hannover, Germany, 2010

Topic: Methodology + real world data , Whiplash rear impact

Schmitt K-U, Weber T Svensson M, Davidsson J, Carlsson A, Björklund M, Jakobsson L, Tomasch E, Linder A, Seat testing to investigate the female neck injury risk – preliminary results using a new female dummy prototype, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 2012

Topic: Methodology & real world data , Whiplash rear impact

Isaksson-Hellman I, Lindman M, Real-world performance of City Safety based on Swedish insurance data, Paper no. 15-0121, The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2015

Topic: Methodology & real world data , Whiplash rear impact, Whiplash frontal impact

Jakobsson L, Lindman M, Björklund M, Victor T, Rear‐End Impact – Crash Prevention and Occupant Protection, Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, Lyon, France, 2015

Topic: Whiplash rear impact

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